Clinical Studies

At TRIOM we believe that the basis of a sustainable, productive and conscious life is good physical and mental health. Good health is maintained by proper nutrition, movement & exercise and adequate rest & recovery. From an holistic standpoint, overall quality of life and fulfillment also play a large role in a person's wellbeing. This makes health a very broad topic with many different factors to take into account.

However, that also makes this space difficult to navigate for people without the proper knowledge, education and resources. Integrity is one of the key values of our brand, and we aim to provide our customers with the right products and information that can make a positive impact on a person's wellbeing.

Therefore, we do extensive research during the development of our products and make sure their benefits are backed by the necessary evidence. Below you can find an overview of our products and the research done on them by various world-renowned research communities across the globe. 


 

Afbeeldingsresultaat voor scientist micro algae

 

The rising consumer demand for astaxanthin-derived products has served as a stimulus for astaxanthin suppliers to set aside more time, money and effort to the research aimed at discovering the potential health benefits, and filling in any existing knowledge gaps, about this promising ingredient. Substantial clinical and preclinical research exists on the health benefits of this potent membrane-protective antioxidant, which also easily passes through the blood–brain and blood–retinal barrier. Numerous studies have shown astaxanthin supplementation may be beneficial for many of the processes and organs in the body. Below we've put a number of clinical studies performed on Astaxanthin on some of its key benefits: 

Antioxidant:

Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant carotenoid has been found to be highly effective in mopping up free radicals as it possesses anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and other beneficial pharmacological properties.

Many chemical reactions produce free radicals which are injurious to body cells, as they are the causes of many diseases, disabilities, and death.

Antioxidants suppress and mop up these circulating free radicals. In various studies, astaxanthin has been found to be a potent carotenoid as an antioxidant thereby protective to the body as studies have shown that it can possibly prevent cancer, enhances eye health, suppresses lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis, enhances skin and brain health, and suppresses the formation of complications of diabetes mellitus.

Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant agent due to its unique molecular structure that makes it much stronger than other antioxidants such as vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E. Most other antioxidants are depleted after they’ve neutralized free radicals, but astaxanthin remains intact and active.

Conclusion: Astaxanthin, a highly potent xanthophylls carotenoid has multiple pharmacological properties, and oral supplements of this anti-oxidant are protective against a wide range of diseases.

Ekpe, Lawson & Inaku, Kenneth & Contact, Lawson & Ekpe, Victor. (2018). Antioxidant effects of astaxanthin in various diseases-a review. Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science. 1-6. 10.5455/oams.20180315075538. 
http://www.jmolpat.com/fulltext/66-1530098678.pdf

Zhang, L., & Wang, H. (2015). Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin. Marine drugs13(7), 4310–4330. https://doi.org/10.3390/md13074310
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4515619/

Shimidzu & al. (1995). Carotenoids as Singlet Oxygen Quenchers in Marine Organisms. Fisheries Science 62(1), 134-137 .https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/fishsci1994/62/1/62_1_134/_pdf

Dose, Janina et al. “Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin.” International journal of molecular sciences vol. 17,1 103. 14 Jan. 2016, doi:10.3390/ijms17010103       https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730345/

Yiğit M, Güneş A, Uğuz C, et al. Effects of astaxanthin on antioxidant parameters in ARPE-19 cells on oxidative stress model. Int J Ophthalmol. 2019;12(6):930–935. Published 2019 Jun 18. doi:10.18240/ijo.2019.06.08  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6580212/

Régnier P, Bastias J, Rodriguez-Ruiz V, et al. Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis Prevents Oxidative Stress on Human Endothelial Cells without Toxicity. Mar Drugs. 2015;13(5):2857–2874. Published 2015 May 7. doi:10.3390/md13052857  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4446609/

 

Cardiovascular:

Research has shown that astaxanthin can improve lipid profiles, and promote better blood flow. It has been proposed that astaxanthin may provide cardiovascular protection through reducing oxidative stress, which is one of the non-traditional risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

The role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease is supported by evidence from observational studies that have found associations between antioxidant intake, oxidative stress and cardiovascular outcomes. 

Pashkow FJ. & al. : Astaxanthin: a novel potential treatment for oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovasculardisease. Am J Cardiol. 2008 May 22;101(10A):58D-68D. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.010.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18474276


Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease. Mar Drugs. 2011;9(3):447–465. Published 2011 Mar 21. doi:10.3390/md9030447  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3083660/

Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Astaxanthin in cardiovascular health and disease. Molecules. 2012;17(2):2030–2048. Published 2012 Feb 20. doi:10.3390/molecules17022030  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6268807/

 

Anti-inflammatory & immune system:

A comprehensive human study performed on young healthy women has shown that dietary astaxanthin decreases a DNA damage biomarker and acute phase protein, and enhances immune responses.

Natural astaxanthin seems to improve the immune response by increasing the number of antibody producing cells and natural killer cell activity along the levels of both T cells and B cells. Natural astaxanthin enhances antibody production, and may also protect immune cells against oxidative stress and membrane damage.

These results suggest that supplementation with astaxanthin could be beneficial for the promotion of several aspects of overall health and the prevention of illness and disease.

Another study showed that astaxanthin enhances immune responses by stimulating the production of cytokines. Taken together, the results suggest that astaxanthin has potential value as a therapeutic or preventive agent for management of immune diseases.

 

Lin KH, Lin KC, Lu WJ, Thomas PA, Jayakumar T, Sheu JR. Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid, Stimulates Immune Responses by Enhancing IFN-γ and IL-2 Secretion in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes in Vitro and ex Vivo. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;17(1):44. Published 2015 Dec 29. doi:10.3390/ijms17010044  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730289/

Park JS, Chyun JH, Kim YK, Line LL, Chew BP. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010;7:18. Published 2010 Mar 5. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-18  https://nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-7075-7-18

Miyachi M, Matsuno T, Asano K, Mataga I. Anti-inflammatory effects of astaxanthin in the human gingival keratinocyte line NDUSD-1. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2015;56(3):171–178. doi:10.3164/jcbn.14-109  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4454080/

Jaswir I., Monsur H.A. Anti-inflammatory compounds of macro algae origin: A review. J. Med. Plants Res. 2011;5:7146–7154. doi: 10.5897/JMPR11.018.  https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4abf/4bacbca32e19401a11cb7bf938a41fa4403e.pdf


Physical performance:

A study in humans to shows that astaxanthin supplementation has positive effect on physical performance. The result of this study is supported by earlier findings that astaxanthin supplementation in mice increase swimming time before exhaustion and that biomarkers of muscle fatigue decrease in humans after exercise due to supplementation.

It can be hypothised that astaxanthin protects the membrane structures of the cells, like mitochondrial membrane, against oxidative stress generated during heavy exercise and thereby preserve the functionality of the muscle cells.

In an additional experiment, it was found that astaxanthin treatment accelerated the decrease of body fat accumulation with exercise training. The results suggested that astaxanthin promoted lipid metabolism rather than glucose utilization during exercise, which led to improvement of endurance and efficient reduction of body fat with training.

The results of another study in humans suggests that astaxanthin supplementation is effective for improvement against bluntness of visual nerve acuity and for inhibition of lactic acid generation induced by the continuous muscular contracting activities (Improvement of activity in endurable hard exercise).

Another study examined the effect of Astaxanthin on substrate metabolism and cycling time trial performance by randomly assigning 21 competitive cyclists to 28 days of Astaxanthin supplementation (4 mg/per day) or placebo supplementation.

Overall, it was observed significant improvements in 20 km time trial performance in the Astaxanthin group, but not the placebo group. The Astaxanthin group was significantly different versus the placebo group. The Astaxanthin group significantly increased power output, while the placebo group did not. 

Malmsten L. & al. (2018). Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin-Rich Algal Meal Improves Strength Endurance – A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study on Male Students –. 13.  https://tahomaclinic.com/Private/Articles3/Astaxanthin/Malmsten%202008%20-%20Astaxanthin-Rich%20Algal%20Meal%20Improves%20Strength%20Endurance.pdf

Aoi W et al., Astaxanthin improves muscle lipid metabolism in exercise via inhibitory effect of oxidative CPT I modification. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;366(4):892-97.                    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18082622

Sawaki K et al., Sports performance benefits from taking natural astaxanthin Characterized by visual acuity and muscular fatigue improvement in humans. J Clin Ther Med 2002;18(9):1085-100.  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Sports-Performance-Benefits-from-Taking-Natural-*-Sawaki-Yoshigi/070cb91945b590ce450294a3c2c096d38d2c402f 

Earnest CP et al., Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. Int J Sports Med. 2011;32(11):882-88.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21984399

Liu SZ, Ali AS, Campbell MD, et al. Building strength, endurance, and mobility using an astaxanthin formulation with functional training in elderly. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018;9(5):826–833. doi:10.1002/jcsm.12318  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6204600/

 Fukamauchi M et al., Food functionality of astaxathin-10: Synergistic effects of astaxanthin intake and aerobic exercise. Food Style 21. 2007;11:1-4.

Sztretye M, Dienes B, Gönczi M, et al. Astaxanthin: A Potential Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidant Treatment in Diseases and with Aging. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019;2019:3849692. Published 2019 Nov 11. doi:10.1155/2019/3849692
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6878783/

Sawaki K et al., Sports performance benefits from taking natural astaxanthin Characterized by visual acuity and muscular fatigue improvement in humans. J Clin Ther Med 2002;18(9):1085-100.

Takami M, Aoi W, Terajima H, Tanimura Y, Wada S, Higashi A. Effect of dietary antioxidant-rich foods combined with aerobic training on energy metabolism in healthy young men. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2019;64(1):79–85. doi:10.3164/jcbn.18-40  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348409/ 

Effects on eyes:

one of astaxanthin’s most exciting roles is in promoting and protecting the health of the eyes. The pathogenesis of a range of eye disorders has been attributed to cellular oxidative damage from singlet oxygen and free radical generation.

These contributing factors indicate the potential benefits of astaxanthin as an antioxidant supplement for eye health. An extensive range of clinical trials and in vitro research have investigated the effects of astaxanthin in the prevention and treatment of eye diseases, as well as maintaining healthy eye function.

The benefits of astaxanthin range from reducing eye strain to having a potential role in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Its ability to cross the blood-retinal brain barrier and accumulate in the retina adds to astaxanthin’s benefits in the treatment of eye diseases.

Several studies report the effect of astaxanthin to improve accommodative ability as efficacy in the eye. It is supposed that the improvement effect on accommodative ability of astaxanthin should be associated with its action to increase blood flow in the retinal capillaries.

Nakajima Y. & al. : Astaxanthin, a dietary carotenoid, protects retinal cells against oxidative stress in-vitro and in mice in-vivo. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;60(10):1365-74. doi: 10.1211/jpp/60.10.0013.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18812030

Nakamura A et al., Changes in Visual Function Following Peroral Astaxanthin. Jpn J Clin Opthalmol. 2004;58:1051-54.

Saito M et al., Astaxanthin increases choroidal blood flow velocity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;250:239-45.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22072378

Nagaki Y et al., Effect of astaxanthin on accommodation and asthenopia. Folia Ophthalomogica Japonica. 2010;3(5):461-68.  http://luteza.com/documents/10a.pdf

Nagaki Y et al., The supplementation effect of astaxanthin on accommodation and asthenopia. J Clin Therap Med. 2006;22:41-54.

Nitta T et al., Effects of astaxanthin on accommodation and asthenopia – Dose finding study in healthy volunteers. J Clin Therap Med. 2005;21(5):534-56.  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effect-of-Astaxanthin-on-Accommodation-and-Study-in-KENJI-Kazuhiro/6bb985401984dfc2631552099f83decc115f3871

Nagaki Y et al., Effects of astaxanthin on accommodation, critical flicker fusions, and pattern visual evoked potential in visual display terminal workers. J Trad Med. 2002;19:170-73.  https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/13bf/024ccc9a07f88a36046d7d730d808c9fa37c.pdf

 

Effects on skin:

Oxidative stress caused by UV-light, smoking and pollution has been explained to have a major impact in the process of skin aging. Free radicals damage skin cells and destroy the collagen network which leads to sagging and wrinkles.

The interest of astaxanthin as an anti-wrinkle agent is growing among researches due to its natural capacity to protect cells from irradiation and oxidation. Astaxanthin is produced by the algae Haematococcus pluvialis to protect its cells from sun radiation, UV-light and oxidation. Several human studies demonstrated that astaxanthin reduced wrinkles and improved skin elasticity and moisture. The results are confirmed by animal studies.

The mechanism of action of astaxanthin is explained by its strong antioxidant capacity and its protective effects against sun irradiation. In vitro studies have demonstrated that astaxanthin improves the function of mitochondria and has good protective effects on human fibroblasts. In that way, it can protect skin cells from free radicals and preserve the collagen layer which result in smooth and youthful appearance of the skin.

The results indicate that astaxanthin has promising anti-wrinkle effects and that it can be helpful in reducing the skin aging process.

Tominaga K, Hongo N, Fujishita M, Takahashi Y, Adachi Y. Protective effects of astaxanthin on skin deterioration. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 2017;61(1):33-39. doi:10.3164/jcbn.17-35.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28751807

Tominaga K., Hongo N., Karato M., Yamashita E. Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on human subjects. Acta Biochim. Pol. 2012;59:43–47.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22428137

Suganuma K et al., Anti-aging and functional improvement effects for the skin by functional foods intake : clinical effects on skin by oral ingestion of preparations containing Astaxanthin and Vitamins C and E. Jichi Medical University Journal. 2012;35:25-33.

Satoh A et al., Effects of the lntake of astaxanthin on the reduction of skin darkling induced by uv irradiation in adult women. Oyo Yakuri Pharmacometrics. 2011;80(1/2):7-11.

Tominaga K et al., Cosmetic effects of astaxanthin for all layers of skin. Food Style 21. 2009;13(10):25-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22428137

Yamashita E, The effects of a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin on skin condition. Carotenoid Science. 2006;10:91-5.
University of Hawaii Cancer Center. "Astaxanthin compound found to switch on the FOX03 'Longevity Gene' in mice." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 28 March 2017.            https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170328092428.htm

Ito N, Seki S, Ueda F. The Protective Role of Astaxanthin for UV-Induced Skin Deterioration in Healthy People-A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2018;10(7):817. Published 2018 Jun 25. doi:10.3390/nu10070817  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073124/

Davinelli S, Nielsen ME, Scapagnini G. Astaxanthin in Skin Health, Repair, and Disease: A Comprehensive Review. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):522. Published 2018 Apr 22. doi:10.3390/nu10040522  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5946307/

Neurological effects:

Astaxanthin is receiving attention for its effect on the prevention or co-treatment of neurological pathologies, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

Many studies and reviews focus on the neuroprotective properties of astaxanthin and explore the underlying mechanisms to counteract neurological diseases, mainly based on its capability to cross the blood-brain barrier and its oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

Astaxanthin exerts a strong protective effect on human brain; its unique chemical structure allows it to readily cross the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the brain is considered the most important target organ of astaxanthin.

Grimmig B. & al. : Neuroprotective mechanisms of astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic role in preserving cognitive function in age and neurodegeneration. Geroscience. 2017 Feb;39(1):19-32. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9958-x.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5352583/

Galasso C, Orefice I, Pellone P, et al. On the Neuroprotective Role of Astaxanthin: New Perspectives?. Mar Drugs. 2018;16(8):247. Published 2018 Jul 24. doi:10.3390/md16080247  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117702/

Talbott, Shawn & Hantla, Don & Capelli, Bob & Ding, Lixin & Li, Yanmei & Artaria, Christian. (2019). Effect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Psychophysiological Heart-Brain Axis Dynamics in Healthy Subjects. Functional Foods in Health and Disease. 9. 521-531. 10.31989/ffhd.v9i8.636.  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335928279_Effect_of_Astaxanthin_Supplementation_on_Psychophysiological_Heart-Brain_Axis_Dynamics_in_Healthy_Subjects

Han, J.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Im, J.H.; Ham, Y.W.; Lee, H.P.; Han, S.B.; Hong, J.T. Astaxanthin Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation, Oxidative Stress and Memory Dysfunction through Inactivation of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Pathway. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 123.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410230/

 

Afbeeldingsresultaat voor scientist micro algae



Ongoing research on magnesium L-threonate continues to uncover many new ways of application. This unique and relatively new form of magnesium is being evaluated by research groups for anxiety, longevity, sleep, mood and other conditions of aging. More human studies on these areas of application are being carried out in several world-renowned Universities across the globe.

With existing animal and human clinical trial data beginning to emerge, research on the neural and cognitive effects of magnesium L-threonate suggests that supplementation may have several important health benefits.

EFFECTS ON SLEEP:

Magnesium has been noted to improve sleep quality in several studies on people with poor sleep quality. It is more often associated with its cognitive and neurological benefits and has been widely studied in its effects with memory and learning. Recent studies however have shown that magnesium levels in the brain play a beneficial role in sleep quality as well as the development of sleep disorders

Results show that magnesium deficiency does have an effect on sleep and could cause sleep disturbances and further sleep disorders. Two sleep disorders that have been linked to an imbalance of magnesium are obstructive sleep apnea and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Ghabriel MN, Vink R. Magnesium transport across the blood-brain barriers. In: Vink R, Nechifor M, editors. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System
University of Adelaide Press; 2011. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507259/

Gomez, Daryan. (2020). The Effects of Magnesium Levels in the Brain on Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341370905

Abbasi B, Kimiagar M, Sadeghniiat K, Shirazi MM, Hedayati M, Rashidkhani B. The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Res Med Sci. 2012;17(12):1161-1169.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23853635/

Cao Y, Zhen S, Taylor AW, Appleton S, Atlantis E, Shi Z. Magnesium Intake and Sleep Disorder Symptoms: Findings from the Jiangsu Nutrition Study of Chinese Adults at Five-Year Follow-Up. Nutrients. 2018;10(10):1354. Published 2018 Sep 21. doi:10.3390/nu10101354https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6212970/

Liu G, Weinger JG, Lu ZL, et al. Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;49(4):971-90. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26519439/

Sun Q, Weinger JG, Mao F, Liu G. Regulation of structural and functional synapse density by L-threonate through modulation of intraneuronal magnesium concentration. Neuropharmacology. 2016;108:426-439. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.05.006    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27178134/

Nielsen FH, Johnson LK, Zeng H. Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Magnes Res. 2010;23(4):158-168. doi:10.1684/mrh.2010.0220 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21199787/

EFFECTS ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION:

Researchers concluded that taking magnesium L-threonate daily resulted in significant improvements in cognitive function, working memory, and attention.

The researchers have found that one of the mechanisms for magnesium L-threonate having such effects is that it increases synapse density. They also proposed that as the threonate element takes the magnesium across the blood-brain and blood–cerebrospinal fluid barriers, it increases the total amount of the mineral in neuronal intracellular spaces. Plus, magnesium L-threonate was shown to increase overall magnesium levels throughout the body

Liu G, Weinger JG, Lu ZL, Xue F, Sadeghpour S. Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;49(4):971-990. doi:10.3233/JAD-150538 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26519439/

Sun Q, Weinger JG, Mao F, Liu G. Regulation of structural and functional synapse density by L-threonate through modulation of intraneuronal magnesium concentration. Neuropharmacology. 2016;108:426-439. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.05.006    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27178134/

Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. 2010;65(2):165-177. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.026 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20152124/

Abumaria N, Yin B, Zhang L, et al. Effects of elevation of brain magnesium on fear conditioning, fear extinction, and synaptic plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala. J Neurosci. 2011;31(42):14871-14881. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3782-11.2011 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22016520/

Botturi A, Ciappolino V, Delvecchio G, Boscutti A, Viscardi B, Brambilla P. The Role and the Effect of Magnesium in Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1661. Published 2020 Jun 3. doi:10.3390/nu12061661 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32503201/

Yamanaka R, Shindo Y, Oka K. Magnesium Is a Key Player in Neuronal Maturation and Neuropathology. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(14):3439. Published 2019 Jul 12. doi:10.3390/ijms20143439 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31336935/

Wang J, Liu Y, Zhou LJ, et al. Magnesium L-threonate prevents and restores memory deficits associated with neuropathic pain by inhibition of TNF-α. Pain Physician. 2013;16(5):E563-E575.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24077207/

Abumaria N, Luo L, Ahn M, Liu G. Magnesium supplement enhances spatial-context pattern separation and prevents fear overgeneralization. Behav Pharmacol. 2013;24(4):255-263. doi:10.1097/FBP.0b013e32836357c7https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23764903/

Li W, Yu J, Liu Y, et al. Elevation of brain magnesium prevents synaptic loss and reverses cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Mol Brain. 2014;7:65. Published 2014 Sep 13. doi:10.1186/s13041-014-0065-y https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25213836/

Zhou X, Huang Z, Zhang J, et al. Chronic Oral Administration of Magnesium-L-Threonate Prevents Oxaliplatin-Induced Memory and Emotional Deficits by Normalization of TNF-α/NF-κB Signaling in Rats. Neurosci Bull. 2021;37(1):55-69. doi:10.1007/s12264-020-00563-x https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32857294/

Huang Y, Huang X, Zhang L, et al. Magnesium boosts the memory restorative effect of environmental enrichment in Alzheimer's disease mice. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2018;24(1):70-79. doi:10.1111/cns.12775 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29125684/

Kim YS, Won YJ, Lim BG, Min TJ, Kim YH, Lee IO. Neuroprotective effects of magnesium L-threonate in a hypoxic zebrafish model. BMC Neurosci. 2020;21(1):29. Published 2020 Jun 26. doi:10.1186/s12868-020-00580-6 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32590943/

Mickley GA, Hoxha N, Luchsinger JL, Rogers MM, Wiles NR. Chronic dietary magnesium-L-threonate speeds extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013;106:16-26. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2013.02.019https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3668337/

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